JAPANESE GARDEN PDF

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Visiting Japanese Gardens This article is the first in a multi-part series by Koichi Kobayashi, a Seattle-based landscape architect and an affiliate professor of. The David G. Porter Memorial. Japanese Garden is described by its designer, Landscape Architect. Christopher Campbell, as "the Great within the Small". PDF | On Jan 1, , Wybe Kuitert and others published Gardens in Japan.


Japanese Garden Pdf

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Seisui-Tei, “Garden of Pure Water”, is a traditional Zen garden where the That is, the elements of the garden are meant to evoke one's creative process. Many Japanese garden students and enthusiasts from the United States seek create, maintain and even just appreciate traditional Japanese gardens takes a. GARDEN DESIGN. ABSTRACT. We present an investigation into the relation between design princi- ples in Japanese gardens, and their associated perceptual.

Kubota convinced Mr. The hills surrounding the site for the garden on the north and east sides were partially leveled and the fill was used to decrease the depth of the sub-pond, increasing its reflectivity. Because Mr. Kubota did not design on paper, there are no plans or sketches that outline his design concepts and ideas.

Rather, he simultaneously directed the design and construction at the site using his sons to maneuver rocks until he was pleased with their orientation and aspect. Many of the trees were pruned in the classic Japanese moon and boat styles after the initial planting. However, over time maintenance pruning was neglected, and the trees slowly began to revert to more natural shapes.

Additionally, as various specimens have died over the years, they have often not been replaced, and because good planting records were never kept, no list accounts for all plants in this area. Richard Yamasaki, another well-known local Japanese-American gardener, was hired to start a new pruning regime to train many of the trees back to their initial shapes. The Japanese garden currently has the attention of a full-time gardener who spends almost his entire time pruning. Many of the specimens have been returned to their classical shapes, and are carefully maintained.

In , the Bloedels hired Paul Hayden Kirk to design a guesthouse on the site directly adjacent to, and facing the Japanese Garden. The house was a combination of Japa- nese and Northwest indigenous styles, incorporating many elements of a Japanese teahouse as well as a Northwest Native American longhouse. Kirk also designed the gate to the west of the guesthouse. Yashiro Watanabe was hired to design and install a stone walkway flanked by a string tied fence leading from the driveway to the guesthouse.

Yamasaki worked on a new trail leading from the Japanese garden around the western side of the guesthouse.

The trail has since been softened and rounded somewhat by the Re- serve staff, and several plantings have been changed. Finally, Richard Haag converted the small area just north of the guesthouse from a pool to a hira-niwa a flat garden in However, the design was replaced in by a kare-sansui a raked sand and rock garden designed by Koichi Kawana, a well-respected southern California designer, after both Bloedel and subsequent stewards did not find hira-niwa appropriate for the space.

The core area of Mr. A gravel path winds its way around the pond and large granite boulders and stones are placed along the shoreline up to the sloping hills on the north side. Japanese red, black and white pines dot the shoreline, as well as mature specimens of lace-leaf maple, cypress, Tanyosho pine, juniper, cedar, yew and bamboo. Starting from the east side of the main guesthouse the path is intimately enclosed as it follows a boundary of an informal grove of trees. This boundary breaks at the southern edge of the garden where the upper sub-pond flows into the main pond.

The view to the south reveals an English landscape garden complete with a green lawn and a graceful weeping willow tree hanging over the main pond. From here the path continues to wind back towards the guesthouse. On the inside of the gate, and in front of the build- ing, a checkerboard of alternating squares of concrete and verdant green moss surrounds the kare-sansui raked sand garden.

This area is enclosed by a series of small earthen mounds. The overall design reflects the concept of a stroll garden with intermittent appearing and disappearing views along the path, and an asymmetrical balance in the placement of stones and plantings is also evident. Because this garden is not kept as immaculate as traditional gardens in Japan, it has a fluid and natural atmosphere.

The garden incorporates many basic principles of Japanese garden design but it was constructed without bridges, lanterns nor shrines that are usually found in many traditional Japanese gardens. Additionally, many native Northwest plant species grace the garden. The Annie E. Casey Foundation funded construction of the garden, which was opened by Jim Casey, the founder of UPS on the same site. This space is the undisputed jewel of Pioneer Square and is an intimate pocket park enclosed by a tall and elegant ornamental iron fence.

The natural scene reflects the nearby Cascade and Olympic Mountains and contrasts the formality of the seating area and ironwork. Along with its natural Pacific Northwest theme, the waterfall also suggests images of traditional Japanese gardens.

The Pioneer Square Waterfall Garden is an early example of designs that have blurred the line between architectural and natural design elements, which has become a significant theme in modern landscape architecture. Fuji and Yoshino cherry trees, as well as an 8, lb. Benches placed along the paths allow visitors to contemplate the expansive views to the south.

The building was revived as a cultural resource in the early s, at which time the park was part of the Yesler Terrace Housing Project. From then on it was simply known as Yesler Terrace Park. He has earned high praise for his innovative designs of traditional garden styles and the introduction of new materials in garden construction. Sadly, Mr. Araki passed away several years ago, but his legacy lives on in the gardens and projects he has designed and built in Japan, and in cities all over the world, including Seattle.

Suzaku-no-Niwa, Kyoto Suzaku-no-Niwa, the Garden of the Red Peacock, was built in to commemorate the th anniversary of the founding of Heian-kyo, the ancient Japanese capital, at the present location of Kyoto. The garden, which can be found in Southern Kyoto at Umekoji Park, was created using gardening techniques that have been handed down since the citys beginning.

In addition to Suzaku-no-Niwa, the park also contains a large open space dedicated to railroad history and a bio-habitat area. Today a JR rail line and commercial and residential buildings surround the park; an environment not normally suited to the development of a Japanese garden. Nevertheless, the garden successfully provides a sanctuary away from busy urban life.

Suzaku-no-Niwa is 2. The design creates a new style of beauty that matches the former community life in Kyoto without imitating famous gardens. The Suzaku-no-Niwa contains six distinct features that showcase traditional landscape gardening craftsmanship. The momiji-dani mountain valley painted in autumn colors features a cascading taki waterfall flowing into a stone-filled brook surrounded by small hills, and skillfully planted with lush cedars and maples.

Together, the waterfall and brook form a natural landscape that is a miniature depiction of the outlying mountain valleys of Kyoto romanticized in the past. The construction of the waterfall used new methods that are different from traditional approaches.

The design of the pond was influenced by Rinpa, the art of Ogata Korin, a well-known painter of screens of the Edo period. The akamatsu-bayashi red-pine forest was planted to showcase the friendly presence of red pines and the beautiful positive and negative space created by the their shapes, lines, and alignment.

The planting also takes care to give the observer a sense that the trees could be found in a natural forest. Finally, the nosuji stream cutting through hills and plains is a simple but relaxing area, and a common element in traditional landscape gardening. These elements were drawn from traditions of expert artisans since the time of the Heian-kyo and invite the visitor into its imaginative world.

Along with antiquity, Suzaku-no-Niwa also creates a new and unique escape inside urban Kyoto filled with natural beauty. Today, a thousand years of Japanese history can be witnessed within the temple that is home to many national treasures, including the seated figure of the Amida Buddha.

The villa originally belonged to Lord Fujiwara-no- Michinaga in , the end of the Heian-period. These temples were often built near the numerous rivers and springs found in Japan to provide aesthetic scenery and a source for the pond. Its original composition had somewhat faded, but after the end of Pacific War it underwent large-scale repairs. In order to connect the new gallery with the rest of the existing temple ground without contrast, a new but complementing landscape was constructed around the gallery.

Hedging and ornamental rocks were used to tie together the existing greenery and the new landscaping. The incorporation of an enclosed space into the overall design of a stroll garden is an exciting evolution in Japanese gardening. In recent years, in addition to the post-WWII repairs, a young generation of garden designers has restored the pond and its shoreline to the original Heian period layout.

Tadashi Kubo, professor of landscape architecture at Osaka who was an early pioneer in uniting the Japanese gardening world of Japan with the U. Construction of the gardens was lead by his students Masami Sugimoto, Yoshishige Fujita, and Isao Nakase, and even today, his legacy continues to flourish through his students all over Japan and North America.

I was fortunate to get to know the professor through Garrett Eckbo, a former student of both his and mine. The Nikka Yuko Japanese Garden covers 3. Its design intends to symbolize friendship yuko between Canada and Japan with the mix of styles merged with the hardy landscape of Alberta.

Components of the garden include a pond fed by a stream and waterfall on a hill, a middle island nakashima , Zen-style dry garden kare-sansui , and a flat garden hira-niwa with five distinct forms. Most building structures in the garden were originally built in Japan and then rebuilt at the site.

With the help of Kurt Steiner, the manager of the Lethbridge Travel and Convention Bureau, the city council approved the construction of the garden in , and it was completed in The university approved this garden in to commemorate its first graduate of Japanese descent in , Yuichi Kurimoto, whose family also assisted in the construction of the botanical garden.

The stroll garden is spread out over 5 acres and reflects the openness of the north-central Alberta landscape. Some of the forest, hill, stream and lake elements that make up the surroundin g environment were intentionally retained and combined with traditional Japanese design elements including stone lanterns and pagodas, a wooden gate, an azumaya gazebo, and a viewing pavilion. As a result, the garden is not just beautiful, but meditative as well.

Nitobe Memorial Garden, Vancouver, B. Inazo Nitobe who died while visiting the city in Nitobe was dedicated to building bridges between North America and Asia through education and diplomacy, and among many memorials to his life is his portrait on the Japanese 5, yen note. After his death, friends of his in Canada built a small garden surrounding a stone lantern on the University of British Columbia campus UBC.

With the assistance of local Japanese Canadian gardeners, construction of a 2. The stroll path meanders along the periphery of a long and narrow pond that cuts through the center of the garden. There are also many ornamental stones throughout the garden.

The Urasenke tea school performs ceremonies in a teahouse isolated by hedges on east side of the garden. After an in-depth tour of the site, Mr. Sumi impressed me by both his generosity and his excellent workmanship. Until the project, gardeners from the Japanese Canadian Nikkei community had not actively supported renovations of Nitobe. One concern was their reluctance to modify the original garden design.

Even now, a major problem that overshadows the upkeep and repair of Japanese gardens outside of Japan is the similar lack of active support from Nikkei communities. The construction of both the Nitobe Memorial Garden and the Seattle Japanese Garden occurred around the same time allowing for collaboration between the two designers, Professor Mori and Juki Iida, and it is likely that this camaraderie enhanced the final products.

However, it feels far removed from the hustle-bustle of the city that surrounds it, and remains the quintessential Edo-period feudal-stroll garden.

There were few others besides myself to witness the surreal early morning scene of a mist-covered landscape beneath the endless drizzle. The modern-day center of Japanese gardening is, of course, Kyoto. However, during the Edo-period samurai estates and their adjoining gardens accounted for sixty-percent of the property within the city of Edo, or present day Tokyo.

Construction on the garden started in and took eight years to complete. Fires repeatedly destroyed the large feudal estates and gardens of Edo; nevertheless, they continued to be a necessary part of the behind-the-scenes venue for feudal social life. Feudal lords hosted parties, tea ceremonies, archery events, and equine sports in their gardens just as sporting events are held today.

Throughout history, the compositions of gardens in Japan have often been based on motifs from Eastern religions such as the mythological holy mountains of Horai-Shinsen and Shumi-Sen from Buddhism and Taoism. The feudal garden was no exception, though a separate design concept evolved to tastefully combine many different and sometimes contrasting scenes within its expanse.

One method used by designers was to physically reproduce famous Japanese landmarks and scenes from literature in their gardens. The use of light and dark rock in Rikugi-en is an example. When the garden was constructed a large pond was dug in the middle of site. Two teahouses in Rikugi-en, Shinsen-tei and Shinshun-tei, are currently used for tea ceremony, which I had a chance to witness during my last visit.

In the later part of the 19th century the garden came into the hands of a wealthy merchant by the name of Yataro Iwasaki. Kiyoshi Inoshita, the designer of the Seattle Japanese Garden along with Juki Iida, directed maintenance of Rikugi-en for the Tokyo Parks Department from after it was opened to the public. Before that, he worked to preserve the former stroll garden of the Matsumae clan in Tokyo, which was similar to but less magnificent than Rikugi-en.

Unfortunately, the Matsumae garden no longer exists today but there is little doubt that along with Rikugi-en, it also was one of the original design concepts for the Seattle Japanese Garden. It is spread out over 17 acres and includes an expansive Japanese stroll garden and a relaxing museum that beautifully combines the indoor and outdoor spaces of the building and the garden. About years ago, a group of 20 Japanese artists seek- ing a new life in South Florida formed an agricultural commune called the Yamato Colony.

Morikami, the last remaining member of the colony, was able to maintain his acre property despite the harsh environment and weather. In , the current museum was completed and includes exhibits on the Yamato Colony, Japanese arts and crafts, and items unique to Japanese lifestyle and culture.

In addition to the permanent displays at the museum, visitors can experience Japanese culture through seasonal hands on activities. The Morikami Museum is possibly the largest museum outside of Japan with an exclusive Japanese theme. The garden at Morikami Garden combines various sub-gardens of different styles into a large stroll around a central and expansive pond.

They include a Shinden expansive aristocratic estates of the Heian-period built over ponds and islands garden, a Jodo Buddhist representation of Pure Land, paradise garden, a dry-rock sekitei garden, a flat hira- niwa garden, and a modern-natural garden. By utilizing a distinct South Florida expression, the garden is able to incorporate all of these various classical styles without simply copying components from historic gardens in Japan.

However, the garden designers are careful to use native-tropical plants in a way to convey the sense of being in a Japanese garden. Kurisu for the project. The displays at the Morikami Museum along with the pine and bam- boo forests, and the lake and waterfall of its stroll garden reflect the endurance of the Japanese-immigrant community in Florida over the past century.

At the main entrance of the garden is a wooden torii gate constructed using the tongue and groove method without nails. Following a layout common in many stroll-gardens, the path forks just after entering the gate, starting a loop that winds throughout Osaka Garden.

The path is connected to the small nakashima center-island by a series of stepping-stones across the pond. A crescent-shaped moon bridge connects the nakashima to a small peninsula that partially encloses the rest of the pond from the lagoon. The peninsula is near a kameshima turtle-island , and is also a good place to stop and take in the view of a large, cascading waterfall on the island side of the pond.

The view from the inside path near the waterfall looks out over the pond to the moon bridge, continuing on across the lagoon to the Museum in the distance. Many Japanese gardens built in North America started with local grassroots interest and then became realities through cooperation with governmental authorities and organizations in Japan.

For example, the creation of the Seattle Japanese Garden was facilitated by the goodwill of the Government of Japan and the City of Tokyo, which helped to recruit designers for the project.

The construction of the Osaka Garden was made possible through similar cooperation with Japan and the City of Osaka. The pavilion was very popular and even influenced the later works of Chicago landscape architect John Robinson, and the prairie-style of Frank Lloyd Wright, which was used for a number of the hotels he designed in Japan. The Phoenix Pavilion underwent restoration and a formal Japanese stroll garden was added to the site to prepare for the World Industrial Exposition in Paintings from that time show construction of the present peninsula, nakashima, moon bridge, waterfall, and a path leading from the pavilion to the pond.

Formal tea ceremony groups used the teahouse until when the Phoenix Pavilion along with the rest of the garden was destroyed by fire. Today, only a Kasuga-style stone lantern remains in its original place from pre-fire construction. Between and , the parks department of Chicago made large-scale repairs on the garden, which included expanding the pond, cleaning the waterfall, and building a new Moon Bridge.

A gazebo with a traditional Japanese Irimoya-style, gabled and hipped, roof was built at the site of the former teahouse, which was not restored because the wreckage was deemed too unsafe.

Kaneji Domoto, a garden designer from Japan, also did the new rockwork for the waterfall under the supervision of the parks department. To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Chicago-Osaka sister city relationship in , Chicago renamed the garden to Osaka Japanese Garden. At that time, my company, Kobayashi and Associates, was hired to guide the addition of a new torii gate and fencing to the northeast entrance, replacement of existing trees, and maintenance to the garden paths. In , the garden underwent its most recent renovation lead by Sadafumi Uchiyama, a Japanese garden expert and designer from Oregon that focused on renovations to the pond shore and the long awaited expansion and repair of the waterfall.

Ever since the establishment of the villa, its residents have long cherished the views of the Kyoto basin and the distant mountains, including the famous the peaks of Mt. Hiei to the east, and Mt. Atago to the west. Toshito subsequently passed the estate on to his son, Prince Tomotada. Prince Toshihitos fondness for classical literature, the visual arts, tea ceremony, architecture, and garden design influenced the design and composition of the villa.

For example, there are landforms within the garden that portray scenes from the Japanese literary classic Tale of the Genji. The Yashiro garden succeeds in conveying the feeling of a varied and expansive landscape within a small space. It manages to provide a restful and beautiful retreat that con- trasts sharply with the surrounding busy landscape of office buildings and city streets.

Japanese Garden at Bloedel Reserve The Japanese stroll garden at Bloedel Reserve is made up of various components constructed at different times by different people. The garden diverges from strict aesthetic principles to create an amalgam of different spaces that blend native Northwest culture, design, and plantings with Japanese gardening traditions. The result appeals to the Japanese sensibilities of harmony with nature, tranquility and simplicity. The evolution of the Japanese garden at the Bloedel Reserve, the former acre estate of Prentice and Virginia Bloedel on the northern tip of Bainbridge Island across the Puget Sound from Seattle, began in the early s.

In they hired Fujitaro Kubota, a well known Japanese-American garden designer and nursery owner, to design and construct what is now the core area of the garden. Kubota was known for his ability to create poetic Japanese-style gardens incorporating elements of the native Northwest habitat and culture. The site chosen for the garden had recently been cleared, and Mr. Kubota convinced Mr. The hills surrounding the site for the garden on the north and east sides were partially leveled and the fill was used to decrease the depth of the sub-pond, increasing its reflectivity.

Because Mr. Kubota did not design on paper, there are no plans or sketches that outline his design concepts and ideas. Rather, he simultaneously directed the design and construction at the site using his sons to maneuver rocks until he was pleased with their orientation and aspect. Many of the trees were pruned in the classic Japanese moon and boat styles after the initial planting. However, over time maintenance pruning was neglected, and the trees slowly began to revert to more natural shapes.

Additionally, as various specimens have died over the years, they have often not been replaced, and because good planting records were never kept, no list accounts for all plants in this area. Richard Yamasaki, another well-known local Japanese-American gardener, was hired to start a new pruning regime to train many of the trees back to their initial shapes. The Japanese garden currently has the attention of a full-time gardener who spends almost his entire time pruning.

Many of the specimens have been returned to their classical shapes, and are carefully maintained. In , the Bloedels hired Paul Hayden Kirk to design a guesthouse on the site directly adjacent to, and facing the Japanese Garden.

The house was a combination of Japa- nese and Northwest indigenous styles, incorporating many elements of a Japanese teahouse as well as a Northwest Native American longhouse. Kirk also designed the gate to the west of the guesthouse. Yashiro Watanabe was hired to design and install a stone walkway flanked by a string tied fence leading from the driveway to the guesthouse.

Yamasaki worked on a new trail leading from the Japanese garden around the western side of the guesthouse. The trail has since been softened and rounded somewhat by the Re- serve staff, and several plantings have been changed. Finally, Richard Haag converted the small area just north of the guesthouse from a pool to a hira-niwa a flat garden in However, the design was replaced in by a kare-sansui a raked sand and rock garden designed by Koichi Kawana, a well-respected southern California designer, after both Bloedel and subsequent stewards did not find hira-niwa appropriate for the space.

The core area of Mr. A gravel path winds its way around the pond and large granite boulders and stones are placed along the shoreline up to the sloping hills on the north side. Japanese red, black and white pines dot the shoreline, as well as mature specimens of lace-leaf maple, cypress, Tanyosho pine, juniper, cedar, yew and bamboo.

Starting from the east side of the main guesthouse the path is intimately enclosed as it follows a boundary of an informal grove of trees.

This boundary breaks at the southern edge of the garden where the upper sub-pond flows into the main pond. The view to the south reveals an English landscape garden complete with a green lawn and a graceful weeping willow tree hanging over the main pond. From here the path continues to wind back towards the guesthouse.

On the inside of the gate, and in front of the build- ing, a checkerboard of alternating squares of concrete and verdant green moss surrounds the kare-sansui raked sand garden. This area is enclosed by a series of small earthen mounds.

The overall design reflects the concept of a stroll garden with intermittent appearing and disappearing views along the path, and an asymmetrical balance in the placement of stones and plantings is also evident. Because this garden is not kept as immaculate as traditional gardens in Japan, it has a fluid and natural atmosphere. The garden incorporates many basic principles of Japanese garden design but it was constructed without bridges, lanterns nor shrines that are usually found in many traditional Japanese gardens.

Additionally, many native Northwest plant species grace the garden. The Annie E. Casey Foundation funded construction of the garden, which was opened by Jim Casey, the founder of UPS on the same site. This space is the undisputed jewel of Pioneer Square and is an intimate pocket park enclosed by a tall and elegant ornamental iron fence.

The natural scene reflects the nearby Cascade and Olympic Mountains and contrasts the formality of the seating area and ironwork. Along with its natural Pacific Northwest theme, the waterfall also suggests images of traditional Japanese gardens. The Pioneer Square Waterfall Garden is an early example of designs that have blurred the line between architectural and natural design elements, which has become a significant theme in modern landscape architecture.

Fuji and Yoshino cherry trees, as well as an 8, lb. Benches placed along the paths allow visitors to contemplate the expansive views to the south. The building was revived as a cultural resource in the early s, at which time the park was part of the Yesler Terrace Housing Project. From then on it was simply known as Yesler Terrace Park.

Zen Garden.pdf

He has earned high praise for his innovative designs of traditional garden styles and the introduction of new materials in garden construction. Sadly, Mr. Araki passed away several years ago, but his legacy lives on in the gardens and projects he has designed and built in Japan, and in cities all over the world, including Seattle.

Suzaku-no-Niwa, Kyoto Suzaku-no-Niwa, the Garden of the Red Peacock, was built in to commemorate the th anniversary of the founding of Heian-kyo, the ancient Japanese capital, at the present location of Kyoto.

The garden, which can be found in Southern Kyoto at Umekoji Park, was created using gardening techniques that have been handed down since the citys beginning.

In addition to Suzaku-no-Niwa, the park also contains a large open space dedicated to railroad history and a bio-habitat area. Today a JR rail line and commercial and residential buildings surround the park; an environment not normally suited to the development of a Japanese garden. Nevertheless, the garden successfully provides a sanctuary away from busy urban life. Suzaku-no-Niwa is 2. The design creates a new style of beauty that matches the former community life in Kyoto without imitating famous gardens.

The Suzaku-no-Niwa contains six distinct features that showcase traditional landscape gardening craftsmanship. The momiji-dani mountain valley painted in autumn colors features a cascading taki waterfall flowing into a stone-filled brook surrounded by small hills, and skillfully planted with lush cedars and maples.

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Together, the waterfall and brook form a natural landscape that is a miniature depiction of the outlying mountain valleys of Kyoto romanticized in the past.

The construction of the waterfall used new methods that are different from traditional approaches. The design of the pond was influenced by Rinpa, the art of Ogata Korin, a well-known painter of screens of the Edo period.

The akamatsu-bayashi red-pine forest was planted to showcase the friendly presence of red pines and the beautiful positive and negative space created by the their shapes, lines, and alignment. The planting also takes care to give the observer a sense that the trees could be found in a natural forest. Finally, the nosuji stream cutting through hills and plains is a simple but relaxing area, and a common element in traditional landscape gardening.

These elements were drawn from traditions of expert artisans since the time of the Heian-kyo and invite the visitor into its imaginative world. Along with antiquity, Suzaku-no-Niwa also creates a new and unique escape inside urban Kyoto filled with natural beauty. Today, a thousand years of Japanese history can be witnessed within the temple that is home to many national treasures, including the seated figure of the Amida Buddha.

The villa originally belonged to Lord Fujiwara-no- Michinaga in , the end of the Heian-period. These temples were often built near the numerous rivers and springs found in Japan to provide aesthetic scenery and a source for the pond. Its original composition had somewhat faded, but after the end of Pacific War it underwent large-scale repairs.

In order to connect the new gallery with the rest of the existing temple ground without contrast, a new but complementing landscape was constructed around the gallery. Hedging and ornamental rocks were used to tie together the existing greenery and the new landscaping. The incorporation of an enclosed space into the overall design of a stroll garden is an exciting evolution in Japanese gardening.

In recent years, in addition to the post-WWII repairs, a young generation of garden designers has restored the pond and its shoreline to the original Heian period layout.

Tadashi Kubo, professor of landscape architecture at Osaka who was an early pioneer in uniting the Japanese gardening world of Japan with the U. Construction of the gardens was lead by his students Masami Sugimoto, Yoshishige Fujita, and Isao Nakase, and even today, his legacy continues to flourish through his students all over Japan and North America. I was fortunate to get to know the professor through Garrett Eckbo, a former student of both his and mine.

The Nikka Yuko Japanese Garden covers 3. Its design intends to symbolize friendship yuko between Canada and Japan with the mix of styles merged with the hardy landscape of Alberta. Components of the garden include a pond fed by a stream and waterfall on a hill, a middle island nakashima , Zen-style dry garden kare-sansui , and a flat garden hira-niwa with five distinct forms.

Most building structures in the garden were originally built in Japan and then rebuilt at the site. With the help of Kurt Steiner, the manager of the Lethbridge Travel and Convention Bureau, the city council approved the construction of the garden in , and it was completed in The university approved this garden in to commemorate its first graduate of Japanese descent in , Yuichi Kurimoto, whose family also assisted in the construction of the botanical garden.

The stroll garden is spread out over 5 acres and reflects the openness of the north-central Alberta landscape. Some of the forest, hill, stream and lake elements that make up the surroundin g environment were intentionally retained and combined with traditional Japanese design elements including stone lanterns and pagodas, a wooden gate, an azumaya gazebo, and a viewing pavilion.

As a result, the garden is not just beautiful, but meditative as well. Nitobe Memorial Garden, Vancouver, B. Inazo Nitobe who died while visiting the city in Nitobe was dedicated to building bridges between North America and Asia through education and diplomacy, and among many memorials to his life is his portrait on the Japanese 5, yen note.

After his death, friends of his in Canada built a small garden surrounding a stone lantern on the University of British Columbia campus UBC. With the assistance of local Japanese Canadian gardeners, construction of a 2.

The stroll path meanders along the periphery of a long and narrow pond that cuts through the center of the garden. There are also many ornamental stones throughout the garden. The Urasenke tea school performs ceremonies in a teahouse isolated by hedges on east side of the garden.

After an in-depth tour of the site, Mr. Sumi impressed me by both his generosity and his excellent workmanship. Until the project, gardeners from the Japanese Canadian Nikkei community had not actively supported renovations of Nitobe. One concern was their reluctance to modify the original garden design. Even now, a major problem that overshadows the upkeep and repair of Japanese gardens outside of Japan is the similar lack of active support from Nikkei communities.

The construction of both the Nitobe Memorial Garden and the Seattle Japanese Garden occurred around the same time allowing for collaboration between the two designers, Professor Mori and Juki Iida, and it is likely that this camaraderie enhanced the final products. However, it feels far removed from the hustle-bustle of the city that surrounds it, and remains the quintessential Edo-period feudal-stroll garden.

There were few others besides myself to witness the surreal early morning scene of a mist-covered landscape beneath the endless drizzle. The modern-day center of Japanese gardening is, of course, Kyoto. However, during the Edo-period samurai estates and their adjoining gardens accounted for sixty-percent of the property within the city of Edo, or present day Tokyo.

Construction on the garden started in and took eight years to complete. Fires repeatedly destroyed the large feudal estates and gardens of Edo; nevertheless, they continued to be a necessary part of the behind-the-scenes venue for feudal social life. Feudal lords hosted parties, tea ceremonies, archery events, and equine sports in their gardens just as sporting events are held today.

Throughout history, the compositions of gardens in Japan have often been based on motifs from Eastern religions such as the mythological holy mountains of Horai-Shinsen and Shumi-Sen from Buddhism and Taoism. The feudal garden was no exception, though a separate design concept evolved to tastefully combine many different and sometimes contrasting scenes within its expanse.

One method used by designers was to physically reproduce famous Japanese landmarks and scenes from literature in their gardens. The use of light and dark rock in Rikugi-en is an example.

When the garden was constructed a large pond was dug in the middle of site. Two teahouses in Rikugi-en, Shinsen-tei and Shinshun-tei, are currently used for tea ceremony, which I had a chance to witness during my last visit. In the later part of the 19th century the garden came into the hands of a wealthy merchant by the name of Yataro Iwasaki.

Zen Garden.pdf

Kiyoshi Inoshita, the designer of the Seattle Japanese Garden along with Juki Iida, directed maintenance of Rikugi-en for the Tokyo Parks Department from after it was opened to the public. Before that, he worked to preserve the former stroll garden of the Matsumae clan in Tokyo, which was similar to but less magnificent than Rikugi-en. Unfortunately, the Matsumae garden no longer exists today but there is little doubt that along with Rikugi-en, it also was one of the original design concepts for the Seattle Japanese Garden.

It is spread out over 17 acres and includes an expansive Japanese stroll garden and a relaxing museum that beautifully combines the indoor and outdoor spaces of the building and the garden. About years ago, a group of 20 Japanese artists seek- ing a new life in South Florida formed an agricultural commune called the Yamato Colony.

Morikami, the last remaining member of the colony, was able to maintain his acre property despite the harsh environment and weather. In , the current museum was completed and includes exhibits on the Yamato Colony, Japanese arts and crafts, and items unique to Japanese lifestyle and culture.

In addition to the permanent displays at the museum, visitors can experience Japanese culture through seasonal hands on activities.

Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers

The Morikami Museum is possibly the largest museum outside of Japan with an exclusive Japanese theme. The garden at Morikami Garden combines various sub-gardens of different styles into a large stroll around a central and expansive pond.

They include a Shinden expansive aristocratic estates of the Heian-period built over ponds and islands garden, a Jodo Buddhist representation of Pure Land, paradise garden, a dry-rock sekitei garden, a flat hira- niwa garden, and a modern-natural garden. By utilizing a distinct South Florida expression, the garden is able to incorporate all of these various classical styles without simply copying components from historic gardens in Japan.

However, the garden designers are careful to use native-tropical plants in a way to convey the sense of being in a Japanese garden.

Kurisu for the project. The displays at the Morikami Museum along with the pine and bam- boo forests, and the lake and waterfall of its stroll garden reflect the endurance of the Japanese-immigrant community in Florida over the past century. At the main entrance of the garden is a wooden torii gate constructed using the tongue and groove method without nails.

Following a layout common in many stroll-gardens, the path forks just after entering the gate, starting a loop that winds throughout Osaka Garden. The path is connected to the small nakashima center-island by a series of stepping-stones across the pond.

A crescent-shaped moon bridge connects the nakashima to a small peninsula that partially encloses the rest of the pond from the lagoon. The peninsula is near a kameshima turtle-island , and is also a good place to stop and take in the view of a large, cascading waterfall on the island side of the pond.

The view from the inside path near the waterfall looks out over the pond to the moon bridge, continuing on across the lagoon to the Museum in the distance. Many Japanese gardens built in North America started with local grassroots interest and then became realities through cooperation with governmental authorities and organizations in Japan. For example, the creation of the Seattle Japanese Garden was facilitated by the goodwill of the Government of Japan and the City of Tokyo, which helped to recruit designers for the project.

The construction of the Osaka Garden was made possible through similar cooperation with Japan and the City of Osaka. The pavilion was very popular and even influenced the later works of Chicago landscape architect John Robinson, and the prairie-style of Frank Lloyd Wright, which was used for a number of the hotels he designed in Japan.

The Phoenix Pavilion underwent restoration and a formal Japanese stroll garden was added to the site to prepare for the World Industrial Exposition in Paintings from that time show construction of the present peninsula, nakashima, moon bridge, waterfall, and a path leading from the pavilion to the pond.

Formal tea ceremony groups used the teahouse until when the Phoenix Pavilion along with the rest of the garden was destroyed by fire. Today, only a Kasuga-style stone lantern remains in its original place from pre-fire construction. Between and , the parks department of Chicago made large-scale repairs on the garden, which included expanding the pond, cleaning the waterfall, and building a new Moon Bridge.

A gazebo with a traditional Japanese Irimoya-style, gabled and hipped, roof was built at the site of the former teahouse, which was not restored because the wreckage was deemed too unsafe. Kaneji Domoto, a garden designer from Japan, also did the new rockwork for the waterfall under the supervision of the parks department.Stone water basins, tsukubai were originally placed in gardens for visitors to wash their hands and mouth before the tea ceremony.

Using plants that are adapted to survive in a Mediterranean climate is one way in which to pay respect to the place we live. Tanveer Raza Kalani. The contrast between western flower gardens and Japanese gardens is profound.

Paintings from that time show construction of the present peninsula, nakashima, moon bridge, waterfall, and a path leading from the pavilion to the pond.