BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BY BENJAMIN PDF

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Basic Mechanical Engineering By Benjamin Pdf

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These systems range in complexity from human-in-the-loop to systems that operate without any human intervention. The design of these systems generally involves decomposing the mission needs into sets of scenarios that result in trade studies that lead to an optimized solution with key performance requirements.

Draper continues to advance the field of autonomy through research in the areas of mission planning, sensing and perception, mobility, learning, real-time performance evaluation and human trust in autonomous systems. Draper fills that critical engineering niche that is required to take research or critical requirements and prototype or manufacture realizable solutions. Some specific examples are MEMS, microfluidics and nanostructuring applied to the development of wearable and implantable medical devices, organ-assist devices and drug-delivery systems.

Novel neural interfaces for prosthetics and for treatment of neurological conditions are being realized through a combination of integrated miniaturized electronics and microfabrication technologies. See Related Solutions Fault-Tolerant Systems Draper has developed mission-critical fault-tolerant systems for more than four decades.

These systems are deployed in space, air, and undersea platforms that require extremely high reliability to accomplish challenging missions. At the same time fresh air enters the crankcase through the air inlet port. I Towards the end of this stroke fuel is introduced in the form of fine spray by the fuel injector and due to the high pressure and temperature of the air, the fuel starts burning.

The piston then travels downwards due to the expansion of the gases fig II and near the end of this stroke the piston uncovers the exhaust port and burnt gases escape through this port. The transfer port is then uncovered fig. III and the compressed air from the crankcase flows into the cylinder. The incoming fresh air helps to move the burnt gases from the engine cylinder. Four stroke diesel engine In four stroke cycle engine one cycle of operation is completed in four strokes of the piston i.

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The various strokes of a four stroke diesel engine are detailed below. Refer PV diagram. The inlet valve opens and air at atmospheric pressure is drawn into the engine cylinder. The exhaust valve remains closed. This operation is represented by the line in PV diagram.

Compression stroke In this stroke the piston moves towards TDC and compresses the enclosed air to high temperature and pressure. This operation is represented by line in PV diagram. Both the inlet and exhaust valves remain closed during this stroke. Expansion or working stroke Towards the end of compression stroke a metered quantity of fuel is injected into the hot compressed air in the form of fine spray by means of a fuel injector.

The fuel starts burning, theoretically, at constant pressure and pushes the piston from TDC. This is shown by line in PV diagram. At point 3, fuel supply is cut off. The high pressure gas in the cylinder expand up to point 4, doing work on the piston. The inlet and exhaust valves remain closed during this stroke. At the end of this stroke the exhaust valve opens. During this stroke the inlet valve remains closed. This stroke is represented by the line in PV diagram.

During this stroke the exhaust valve remains opened and the inlet valve remains closed. By this one cycle is completed.

These engines work based on either four stroke or two stroke cycle. Otto cycle Constant volume cycle In this cycle, heat is supplied at constant volume. A homogeneous mixture of air and petrol is supplied to the engine cylinder during the suction stroke. A carburettor provides a mixture of petrol and air in the required proportion.

The fuel air mixture charge gets compressed during the compression stroke At the end of this stroke, fuel is ignited and combustion occurs at constant volume. The gas expands and moves the piston downwards, during work. Four stroke petrol engines The various strokes of a four stroke petrol engine are detailed below.

The inlet valve opens and the fuel air mixture is sucked into the engine cylinder. The exhaust valve remains closed throughout this stroke. This is represented by the line in PV diagram.

Just before the end of this stroke, the spark plug initiates a spark which ignites the mixture and combustion takes place at constant volume line in fig PV diagram. Both the inlet and exhaust valves remain closed throughout this stroke. This expansion process is shown by the line in PV diagram. Both the valves remain closed during this stroke. Two stroke petrol engine In two stroke petrol engine, one cycle of operation is completed in two strokes of the piston, in one revolution of the crankshaft by eliminating separate suction and exhaust strokes.

Working principle of two stroke petrol engine Fig 2. During the upward stroke of the piston, the air fuel mixture in the cylinder is compressed. At the same time fresh air fuel mixture enters the crankcase through the inlet port. The piston then travels downwards due to the expansion of the gases fig. The transfer port is then uncovered fig 2 III and the compressed air fuel mixture from the crankcase flow into the cylinder.

The incoming fresh air fuel mixture helps to move the burnt gases from the engine cylinder. Refer fig.

In a two stroke petrol engine the operations are the same as that for a two stroke diesel engine with some difference. In this engine, fuel air mixture is admitted into the crank case and compressed. A carburettor is used for mixing the fuel and air in the correct proportion. For the ignition of the fuel air mixture at the end of compression in the engine cylinder, a spark plug is provided.

In this case, combustion process is assumed to take place at constant volume. Comparison of SI and CI engines 1. Working cycle: The SI engine, in general, works based on Otto cycle, while the CI engine, in general, works based on diesel cycle. Fuel: A highly volatile fuel such as petrol is used in SI engine while non-volatile fuel such as diesel is used in CI engines. Method of fuel ignition: In most of SI engines, the fuel and air are introduced into the engine cylinder as a gaseous mixture while in CI engines, the fuel is directly introduced into the cylinder in the form of fine spray.

Mixing of fuel and air takes place inside the cylinder. Method of fuel ignition: The SI engine requires a spark to initiate combustion while CI engine utilises the condition of high temperature and pressure, produced by the compression of air in the cylinder, to initiate combustion when fuel is injected.

Fuel economy: CI engines have better fuel economy at all operating conditions. Compression ratio: Compression ratio of SI engines range from 6 to 10, where as that of CI engines range from 16 to The higher compression ratio of CI engines result in higher thermal efficiency and hence a greater power output for the same amount of fuel consumed.

Weight: Because of the higher compression ratio and higher pressure, CI engines require stronger engine parts and hence are heavier 8. Maintenance costs: The maintenance costs of the two types of engines are generally about the same, with CI engine costs slightly higher.

Comparison of two stroke and four stroke cycle engines 1 In a two stroke engine, there is one working stroke for every revolution of the crank shaft whereas in a four stroke engine there is only one power stroke for two revolutions of the crank shaft. Hence, theoretically, the power developed in two stroke engine will be double that of a four stroke engine of the same dimensions However in practice, only about 30 percent extra power is developed.

That is, in order to produce the same of power, a two stroke cycle engine will be of less weight and occupies less space.

The maintenance of the engine will also be easy. The mechanical efficiency will be higher. Due to this, the fresh charge gets diluted with exhaust gases and the thermal efficiency decreases. Also there is possibility of the fresh charge escaping with the exhaust. This will increase the fuel consumption. Carburation Function of the fuel supply system is to store the fuel required for the engine in a tank and to supply it to the cylinder for combustion.

Carburetor is considered as the heart of the petrol engine. It is a device for atomizing and vapourizing the volatile liquid fuel petrol and mixing it with air. It is attached to the intake manifold connected with the engine cylinder. In the S.

Basic Mechanical Engineering

The process of vapourizing the fuel petrol and mixing it with air outside the cylinder in the S. With less air, some portion of the fuel will remain unburnt due to the insufficient supply of oxygen while with excess air, the rate of burning will be slower.

For running at higher speeds and for starting the engine, we need rich air fuel mixture. For this, the carburetor regulates the throttle valve using accelerator.

Provision is made for easy starting choke in cold weather. Carburetor is one chamber where petrol and air was mixed in a fixed ratio and then sent to cylinders to burn it to produce power. This system is purely a mechanical machine with little or no intelligence. It was not very efficient in burning petrol, it will burn more petrol than needed at times and will produce more pollution.

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References books balachandran basic mechanical

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Can become noisy at high speeds.

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